I should have included above the following:

- the reminder the war ended in November 1918, so the shutdown order in February should really not have been a surprise.

- funding for CPI came from the national defense appropriations (i.e., wartime appropriations), which ended, naturally, after the war. Again, Congress did not specifically authorize CPI nor did it specifically fund CPI. Congress, therefore, did nothing to specifically single out CPI to not receive funds in the new fiscal year that began July 1, 1919.

And, I should have emphasized that a) Creel was to blame by his lack of management for the status of CPI's files (unanswered is why the heck things were still operational on June 15), b) Creel chose not to blame his boss and benefactor Wilson, who bore second responsibility distantly behind Creel, and instead blamed Congress, which actually bore zero responsibility for the situation.

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Duly noted. I read nothing but computer manuals for over two decades, closer to three, and graduated with a four-year degree at age 47. I’m slow and history is a hobby. No worries. Feel free to correct me if I misstate anything. I read a little today about Woodrow Wilson, WWI and the Committee on Public Information (CPI), also known as the Creel Committee (April 13, 1917). Thank you.

Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) began using radio to speak directly to the American public in “fireside chats.” His first radio broadcast (March 12, 1933) was about the banking system: “I want to talk for a few minutes with the people of the United States about banking -- with the comparatively few who understand the mechanics of banking but more particularly with the overwhelming majority who use banks for the making of deposits and the drawing of checks.” He spoke to inform. (My representatives rarely speak and when they do it’s not to inform, it’s typically to distort, distract, and “fight against Biden’s policies.”)

Five months later (August 18, 1933) Joseph Goebbels opened the 10th International Radio Show in Berlin (1933) declaring “Radio as the Eighth Great Power"—a nod to Napoleon's notion that the press was the seventh great power. [“Inside the Third Reich’s Radio” by Allison Marsh. 30 MAR 2021. I need to check out Napoleon’s notion.] Goebbels and Hitler spoke to misinform-the bigger the lie the better. Then came Pearl Harbor and The Office of War Information (June 13, 1942) and the Voice of America and William Harlan Hale “who initiated VOA’s first radio show in German with these now immortal words:”

“We bring you voices from America. Today, and daily from now on, we shall speak to you about America and the war. The news may be good for us. The news may be bad. But we shall tell you the truth.” [ History – USAGM ]

I got plenty to read now and will just follow along and enjoy Asha's class. I am wondering whatever happened to the truth? [rhetorical and I don’t have the answer] I should count how many times the word ‘crusade’ is encountered when reading about how we must “make the world safe for democracy.”

Nice bow. My father taught my brother and I how to shoot the bow and arrow in Alaska. We had simple recurved bows, suitable for 10-year-olds, and we would go to an archery range that had stations with targets in the woods. When I wasn't in school, I was in the woods, and we didn’t know what 3D was. I haven’t touched a bow since then. Time to pull weeds.

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